Materijali za rad u bilingvalnom smeru
Teorije istine из уџбеника Светлане Књазеве
Pojam i definicija из уџбеника Светлане Књазеве
https://prezi.com/wxe7vgl4rxp3/presentation/ Подела судова по квантитету и квалитету
- Objasni značenje i etimologiju reči metodologija.
- Koja vrsta znanja je glavni cilj metodologije?
- Šta je nauka?
- Koje su osnovne karakteristike nauke?
- Šta je objašnjenje?
- Šta je explanans, a šta explanandum?
- Navedi uslove adekvatnog objašnjenja.
- Koje vrste objašnjenja postoje?
- Koje su osobine naučnog zakona?
- Koja je uloga modela?
- Šta je hipoteza?
- Navedi vrste hipoteza
- Kada je hipoteza logički prihvatljiva?
- Koji su teorijski kriterijumi za izbor hipoteze?
- Kako proveravamo hipotezu?
- Da li se sve hipoteze mogu potpuno proveriti?
- Da li se sve hipoteze mogu neposredno proveriti?
- Zašto se trudimo da opovrgnemo hipotezu?
- Šta je eksperiment?
- Šta je krucijalni eksperiment?
- Koje su osobine aksiomatskog sistema?
- Kada je područje primene neke teorije šire?
Methodology is a system of methods used in a particular area of study or activity. It is the systematic, theoretical analysis of the methods applied to a field of study.
Science (from Latin scientia, meaning „knowledge“) is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe. Characteristics of science are:
To be objective, one has to guard against his own biases, beliefs, wishes, values and preferences. Objectivity demands that one must set aside all sorts of the subjective considerations and prejudices.
Scientific knowledge is based on verifiable evidence (concrete factual observations) so that other observers can observe, weigh or measure the same phenomena and check out observation for accuracy.
- Ethical Neutrality:
Science is ethically neutral. It only seeks knowledge. How this knowledge is to be used, is determined by societal values. Knowledge can be put to differing uses. Ethical neutrality does not mean that the scientist has no values. It here only means that he must not allow his values to distort the design and conduct of his research. Thus, scientific knowledge is value-neutral or value-free.
- Systematic Exploration:
A scientific research adopts a certain sequential procedure, an organised plan or design of research for collecting and analysis of facts about the problem under study. Generally, this plan includes a few scientific steps – formulation of hypothesis, collection of facts, analysis of facts (classification, coding and tabulation) and scientific generalisation and predication.
Scientific knowledge must occur under the prescribed circumstances not once but repeatedly. It is reproducible under the circumstances stated anywhere and anytime.
Scientific knowledge is precise. Precision requires giving exact number or measurement.
Scientific knowledge is accurate. Accuracy means truth or correctness of a statement or describing things in exact words as they are without jumping to unwarranted conclusions.
Science proceeds on a plane of abstraction. A general scientific principle is highly abstract. It is not interested in giving a realistic picture.
Scientists do not merely describe the phenomena being studied, but also attempt to explain and predict as well. It is typical of social sciences that they have a far lower predictability compared to natural sciences.
A scientific problem is an observation that contradicts an accepted law or theory.
A scientific fact is an objective and verifiable observation, in contrast with a hypothesis or theory, which is intended to explain or interpret facts.
A scientific explanation uses observations and measurements to explain something we see in the natural world. Scientific explanations should match the evidence and be logical, or they should at least match as much of the evidence as possible.
Causality is an abstraction that indicates how the world progresses. Also defined as the principle that there is a cause for everything that happens.
A scientific law is a statement based on repeated experimental observations that describes some aspect of the universe.
A scientific theory is an explanation of an aspect of the natural world that can be repeatedly tested, in accordance with the scientific method, using a predefined protocol of observation and experiment.
The aim of Scientific modelling is to make a particular part or feature of the world easier to understand, define, quantify, visualize, or simulate by referencing it to existing and usually commonly accepted knowledge.
A system is a set of interacting or interdependent entities, real or abstract, forming an integrated whole. In general, a system is a construct or collection of different elements that together can produce results not obtainable by the elements alone.
A hypothesis is an idea or explanation for something that is based on known facts but has not yet been proved: from Greek hupothesis ‘foundation’, from hupo ‘under’ + thesis ‘placing’. It is an educated guess about how things work. It is an attempt to answer your question with an explanation that can be tested. A good hypothesis allows you to then make a prediction.
Experiments provide insight into cause-and-effect by demonstrating what outcome occurs when a particular factor is manipulated. Experiments test whether a prediction is accurate and thus whether a hypothesis is supported or not. It is important that an experiment be a fair test. In a fair test only one factor is changed at a time while keeping all other conditions the same. Experiments should be repeated several times to make sure that the first results weren’t just an accident.